is linked to their cultural beliefs and background. Variations in religious landscapes also give particular regions a unique character and can be seen in the form, orientation, density, and architecture of structures. An early 20th-century philosopher spoke of the impending decline of the West. How does religion help and/or hurt society? • Religion regions overlap both ethnic and language regions. Another aspect of the relationship between religion and geography is religious geography, in which geographical ideas are influenced by religion, such as early map-making, and the biblical geography that developed in the 16th century to identify places from the Bible. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Describe the impact of geography on global relationships and business ethics, Explain how religion informs ethical business practice around the world. History shows that religions succeed when they fit the cultural milieu of the time. Learn more about Iceland, including its history. 2. These factors are closely linked with our culture. This can be a matter of managing expectations. Distribution of Land Mass and Water Mass 3. Because there are differences in the characteristics, history, and interaction with the environment and society, religions also have distinctive landscapes. Cultural Diversity = Religious Diversity? Religious structures - such as places of worship, and other sacred sites - dominate many landscapes. Religion and Beliefs . As global markets become increasingly connected and interdependent, we navigate more of our valued relationships across international boundaries. For example, the Italian subito and the German sofort both refer to something happening “at once” or “straightaway,” but with different expectations about when the action, in fact, will take place. The Concept of Ethical Business in Ancient Athens, Ethical Advice for Nobles and Civil Servants in Ancient China, Comparing the Virtue Ethics of East and West, Utilitarianism: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number, Ethical Decision-Making and Prioritizing Stakeholders, Three Special Stakeholders: Society, the Environment, and Government, Corporate Law and Corporate Responsibility, Sustainability: Business and the Environment, The Impact of Culture and Time on Business Ethics, The Relationship between Business Ethics and Culture. The opposite is also true—the geographical unity of the Roman Empire, which was organized around cities connected to one another by an elaborate system of roads, made it possible for Christianity to spread from the eastern Meditteranean to Europe and northern Africa. All rights reserved. Like language, religion confers identity. What do you think would be the effect of Jillian’s accepting the local custom but continuing her own personal preference at mealtimes? Log in. Are the Values Central to Business Ethics Universal? Hundreds of studies have examined how religious beliefs mold an individual’s sociology and psychology. Of the forces shaping the geography of culture, language and religion are two of the most powerful, but as a divisive force religion plays a more prominent role. However, as we have seen, the ethical standards by which business is conducted can vary depending on culture and time. In particular, research has explored how an individual’s religion (religious beliefs, religious denomination, strength of religious devotion, etc.) Yet what role does a religious concept of stewardship play in the ethics of the twenty-first century? A Tuareg proverb has it that the first cup of tea is bitter like life, the second sweet like love, and the third gentle like death. Geography is very important to understanding culture. The Relationship Between Geography and Religion It can be clearly sensed by the influence of religion shaping our world, being understood by what inhabits it. Christianity was thought to save them from their pagan ways just as Islam and the message of the prophet saved unbelievers in the East. Osiris, perhaps the most popular god, represented the resurrection from death to life in the remarkable story of his rebirth after being murdered by his evil brother. As a result, we know more about the development and dispersal of the major religions than we do of languages. Motions of the Earth 2. - Definition & Role in Society, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Ancient Egyptian Religion and the Nile River. To put it in economic terms, all cultures share the resource of time, but they measure and use that resource very differently. In Kenya, tutaonana baadaye means “see you later,” although “later” could be any time, open to context and interpretation. Unlike the notion of historical time discussed in the previous module, the concept of time in business—people’s approach to punctuality, for example—varies widely in different cultures. the blending together of two different faiths as in the case of the Pai Marire movement in 19th century New Zealand, which had only recently been colonized by Great Britain; this combined traditional Maori beliefs with Old Testament and Christian ideas, as well as a belief that the Maori would be liberated from their new rulers. business success during the Industrial Revolution. This leads to a systematic behavior by all the people in the society. Climate 4. In most cases, the religious beliefs are inherited, either directly from the people that raised you or from the society that already has, and let us use this word bravely now, an established dominant religion. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Of course, Rockefeller’s concept of stewardship—an attitude toward money and capital that stresses care and responsibility rather than pure utility—can be found across cultures and religions in various forms, and there are many similarities among the Judaic, Islamic, and Christian views of money and its use toward a greater end. The most studied component of the geography of religion is the religious landscape, or the religious imprint on the material cultural landscape. One element of business culture you may not realize is based on local custom and culture is the notion of time. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1948, contains a list of basic human rights such as the right to life, liberty, due process, religion, education, marriage, and property. Religion is the most recent major component of culture to develop. Despite criticism, even from family members, Rockefeller donated enormous sums to many causes, especially medical research (in the form of Rockefeller University) and higher education. Under the Khmer Rouge, all religious practices were forbidden. And How Religion Affects Culture? Monasteries were set up throughout Europe as either destinations or as waystations for pilgrimages. Business is primarily about relationships—with employees, business partners, and customers and clients. Later in life, and as his philanthropic motivation increased, his endowment of several charitable causes more fully reflected his belief as to how God wished him to dispose of a sizable portion of his wealth. Many ethnic Portuguese dishes use fish. Many believed that people could not be persuaded to do the right thing without the threat of eternal damnation. Until 1975 Buddhism was officially recognized as the state religion of Cambodia. Why or why not? Human geographers and sociologists use different terms, like ecclesia, denomination, and sect, to define these types of organizations. . or else why had He lavished such bounty on him?”. The age of uncomfortable dresses and starched white shirts may be over, but cultural standards, along with underlying values that prioritize, say, innovation over uniformity, change over time and even within the same company. ? relationship of every individual to the spiritual things they have regarded as holy and worthy of their highest reverence Such adaption often starts with language translation but may include customizing content or products to the tastes and consumption habits of the local market; converting currencies, dates, and other measurements to regional standards; and addressing community regulations and legal requirements. The Effect of Geography and Culture on Religion: Geography is one of the factors widely associated by historians with the social, political, and cultural development of a particular region. On the other hand, geographical boundaries meant that some religious groups were limited to a particular region; the Karaite sect in medieval Judaism, for example, was centered in the Jewish community of Babylonia, and from there established branches in Egypt and Russia which for centuries remained the centers of that culture. People may speak the same language but have quite different beliefs either as members of different major religions … The founder of Confucianism, named Confucius, lived from 551 to 479 B.C.E. Some ways that religion affects culture are that it inspires great works of art and architecture and that it often defines socially acceptable behavior in countries strongly influenced by it. Monasteries became the repositories of civilization, learning, and often wealth. Define localization and name at least three items that might be included as part of a localization effort. In perceiving something as good or bad, our biases play a role and so does our way of thinking. Religion is also studied within cultural geography, which studies how cultural processes spread. “As his fortune grew big enough to beggar the imagination, [Rockefeller] retained his mystic faith that God had given him money for mankind’s benefit . How Geography Affects Religion? The acceptance of a new religion, or of any new practice or idea, is also affected by the cultural values of the people exposed to it. Fish might be a major part of their diet. In Nigeria, for example, standing either too close or too far from someone to whom you are speaking might be seen as impolite. GEOGRAPHY Language and religion – Cultural diffusion is the spreading of cultural traits from one group or place to another. It is Ramadan, and the employees on her team are Muslims who fast each day for a month. Iceland, island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean. His message was religious, not commercial, but his respectful attitude allowed him to be accepted and trusted by the emperor and administrators. The most prominent religious landscape feature is th… Behavioral norms for the clergy were founded and supported by the divine right of kings and the authority of religious tradition ((Figure)). These goals need not be in conflict, but they must be integrated if the company is to reach an ethically sound agreement with the host country. Many today would disagree with the old adage that “clothes make the man,” yet studies show that well-dressed employees are held in higher esteem and may earn more, on average, than those who dress down. Learn more about Ricci’s approach and the relationship between Western and Ming Chinese views of ethics on this webpage. Services, What Is Religion? The factors are: 1. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Business Ethics by Rice University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The practice of religion is inseparably tied to our cultural habitat. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. Why are these standards important (or not) from an ethical perspective? There are different religions today because there are different value systems around the world—the ways in which people think they are going to become happy. Religion dominates the lives and behavior of … What he failed to predict was that the West would export its culture to the rest of the world and thus grip the entire world in its death throes. Geography is one of the factors widely associated by historians with the social, political, and cultural development of a particular region. Values of Protestant Christianity were often used to justify ________. The richest person of his age, Rockefeller earned his fortune as the founder and major shareholder of Standard Oil but always regarded his billions as a public trust rather than his personal prize. Still, a global ethical demeanor requires that we be as conscious as possible as to what constitutes courtesy wherever we find ourselves conducting business. Geography and culture affects religion because - 5365374 1. Might we see a universal, secular code of ethics developing in place of religion? Managers must do the work required for any business deal but deliver it in a way that is culturally sensitive, even if that means negotiating details like project deadlines and the conduct of meetings and agreeing to have different expectations of those in a different cultural context. She proposes several times that team members keep up their strength by drinking water or tea, but her suggestions are met with awkward silence. Religion’s role in business is less certain today; we are perhaps more likely to see a universal, secular code of ethics develop than to see religion serve as common ground for different cultures to come together. The Church provided sanction and divine recognition for governments of the day in the form of "Divine Right".The Church was responsible for the ordination of kings and often arbitrated disputes over territory. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. In its study of leadership effectiveness and organizational behavior across cultures, the GLOBE leadership project of the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, found leader effectiveness is contextual and strongly connected to cultural and organizational values. Until the seventeenth century, religion and ethics were nearly inseparable. 1. Factor # 1. Cambodia - Cambodia - Religion: Most ethnic Khmer are Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhists (i.e., belonging to the older and more traditional of the two great schools of Buddhism, the other school being Mahayana). There was, for centuries, a mutual hostility and demonization between Christians and Muslims that broke into outright conflict during the Crusades; this hostility made it unlikely that members of the two groups would consider adopting each others' faith, though there are areas in southern Europe where the groups lived in peace for a long time until warfare broke out after the collapse of the former Yugoslavia. It can affect the same culture in different ways at different times. How do you think clothing choices affect the relationships we form at work or in other business situations? In order for a new faith, or any system of belief, to spread it would need to be carried by people who were on the move for that purpose or some other. Religion affects different cultures in different ways. Business ethics will have to balance all these factors when adopting standards of conduct and local practices. Compare this with the Western attitude that “time flies” and “time is money.” Finally, Westerners doing business in some English-speaking African countries have learned that if they want something immediately, they have to say “now now” as “now” by itself does not convey the desired sense of immediacy. One very prominent discursive tension is apparent in almost any religion, and that is the constant drive towards purity. What should she do for lunch? The core of Christianity, for instance, does not change, but its emphasis in any given period does. When people in a culture believe strongly in a given religion, it can have a huge impact on their culture.... For example, almost all cultural expression was church-related. Consider, for example, that in the United States, we might speak of “a New York minute,” “the nick of time,” “the eleventh hour,” and so on. 1. Jillian has never fasted and believes the practice can be harmful over prolonged periods, especially in the heat of summer. Employers have the right to establish a dress code and expect employees to abide by it. The Christians separate material and spiritual lives; you are allowed to accept God in private life, while you practice democracy and capitalism in social life. Have lunch in one of the local restaurants that cater to Westerners? Religions organize themselves – their institutions, practitioners, and structures – in a variety of fashions. This helps them live within a set of rules unlike the animals. How does culture affect food in France ? A huge factor in different cultures is different religions. A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. 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